PERIODONTICS is a specialty ofdentistry that studies supporting structures ofteeth, as well as diseases and conditions that affect them. The supporting tissues are known as the periodontium, which includes the gingiva(gums), alveolar bone, cementum, and theperiodontal ligament. A professional who practices this specialty field of dentistry is known as a periodontist. Periodontology is an emerging specialty in the field of dentistry which deals with the diseases of the tooth supporting structures. In the clinical sessions the students are equipped with the skills to carry out various treatment modalities to manage the patients suffering from periodontal diseases.
Periodontal diseases take on many different forms but are usually a result of a coalescence of bacterial plaque biofilm accumulation of the red complex bacteria (e.g., P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and T. denticola) of the gingiva and teeth, combined with host immuno-inflammatory mechanisms and other risk factors which lead to destruction of the supporting bone around natural teeth. Untreated, these diseases lead to alveolar bone loss and tooth loss and, to date, continue to be the leading cause of tooth loss in adults.
Periodontology also involves the placement and maintenance of dental implants, including the treatment of peri-implantitis which is inflammatory bone loss around dental implants. The etiology of peri-implantitis is thought to be very similar to periodontal disease